Knowing Me Week 9 Dream For A New You

Knowing Me Week 9 – Dream for a new you!

Dec 2019 From pausing to consider the over-consumption of chocolate, to thoughts of changing career, the solstice is a the season of reflection. Imagining how things can be different is the start change.

This week we will draw on the work of the late Steve de Shazer and I will invite you try something new. Its a bit like magic! 

The time is now!

For northern hemisphere dwellers, 22nd December 2019 will be the shortest day of the year. For the southern hemisphere it’s the longest. The earth’s oceans will swell and fall to their highest and lowest points at this time. This key moment in the year has for centuries been a time of celebration, feasting and reflection. More recently, all over the world people use the New Year to make decisions to reflect on habits and ambitions they want to change.  What are yours?

Are you comfortable? Then let’s go on a journey of the imagination

Although I have referred to yuletide, this exercise is not astrological and can be done at any time of the year.  Take your pen and paper and think about something that gets in the way of your success in life that you would like to change.  (If you have none you may like to run the Knowing Me week 1-8 exercises!).

Once you have thought of something, pause and try to experience it completely: Visualise it – what do you see happening;  listen to it – what can you hear happening; feel it how does it make you feel. Finally, consider how long it has rested within you.

Now, imagine yourself at home, completing all the last tasks of the day and retiring to bed. Notice the details of your actions as completely as possible and watch yourself asleep.

As you sleep, some yuletide magic occurs and that something that you want to change is miraculously gone!  You have no idea how, you just know when you open your eyes that this is so.

Think for a moment and write down: how is life different now on this new morning? Write down as much that is changed that you can think of in detail. Read over what you have written.

As you read, think of your closest friend. What difference would they experience in you after that magic sleep? Write down as much that is changed that you can think of in detail.

Three questions for reflection 

1. Ask yourself if or when you last felt like this new you

2. Thinking about the new you as 10/10 what score you give yourself now between 0-10 of where you stand now.

3. What one thing could you do to move you a step nearer to 10/10

Happy 2020

For more about the project and links to all the previous wonderful weeks look here.  Contact me to take the next step!

TOPHAT COACHING

 

 

Knowing Me- Week 8 BeDoHave

To Be, To Do or To Have

In Knowing Me Week 8, its December 2019 and we enter into the spirit of the festive season! We are getting in touch with our hopes and ambitions.

The lists and the circle you make here may help with your resolutions for 2020 (and beyond if you are reading this later)!

As the regulars among you know, the Knowing Me Project is all about getting to know ourselves better. You could add to that challenge, being more honest about ourselves.

For more about the project and links to all the previous wonderful weeks look here. If in doubt contact me for more info!

So whats it to be? A cup of tea, a glass of something else? Either way, get the pen and paper or whatever you use to capture your thoughts and here we go…

The lists

Take a page and divide it into three columns labeled Be, Do, Have.  Under each title allow your imagination and inner thoughts take over as you list all the things you want to be, do or have (try your best to avoid writing what you think you should write!). NOTE The words in the columns don’t have to link across. Let your lists grow and when you think you have run out ask:  What else?

Keep this list safe, putting it one side and prepare to make your circle

The Circle

Sometimes this is called a wheel. This is how it works:

step 1

List the things in your life that are really important to you. This is your choice  and everyone is different. Often, it is family, or friends, fitness, health, work, finance, community etc. It may change from time to time.

step 2

DRAW a circle – your cake – and divide it into as many slices as you have important things up to around 8.

Put each of the important things from step one into each of the slices (see the example from one of my clients)

step 3

Ask yourself two things:  

  1. Why does this segment matter to me?
  2. For each segment, if the outer rim is 10/10 and everything is fine and the centre is 0/10 what score would I give this segment based on how I feel it is going? 

If you are the colouring-in kind of a person, you might like to shade in. So that if you are feeling that work is presently at 50% of what you would like you will shade in 50% from the centre.

step 4

When you have your thoughtful circle completed, look back at your be do have lists above. Do you see things in one that is not in the other? Is there and alignment?  

step 5

With all this reflection and with a new year just around the corner ask yourself:

Is there a segment I would particularly like to work on, to make improvements in my life?  What is the first thing I could do?

If this game or any of the proceeding weeks has made you think and you would like  some guidance on moving forward with coaching. Give me a call!

Acknowledgements – thanks for this exercise to many coaches and in particular to The Coaching Academy

 

 

 

Knowing Me – Week 7 Meet your past self

Do you know your past self?

This week 7 of Knowing Me, I invite you to look at your past and play a game testing your memory. Getting to knowing your past self can be fun and enlightening! Would you know yourself at 12? What advice would your 12 year old self give you?   

As you may already know, out  memory plays tricks. We mis-remember and add meaning to events long after they have occurred, fully believing that our later version of events it TRUE.  This fascinating blog explains some more.

Regardless of their slight unreliability, memories can serve you well. They are an important part of your reflection on the present. They help you to understand better the place you now stand and the choices you will make. 

21 questions to start your thinking! 

For this week’s exercise, first ask yourself the questions listed below. Some are things you may not have asked yourself in a long time. They may  remind you of things you love, or are proud of, that you had forgotten about. They may leave you puzzling about the younger person you who has become a stranger.  

When you finish, pause for thought and make some notes.

What has this exercise thrown up for you? How do you feel having completed this exercise?

THE TWELVE -YEAR-OLD YOU!
1. What did I like to do best when I was 12?
2 What was my favourite holiday memory?
3 What was my favourite food ?
4 What are some chores that I had to do when I was growing up?
5 What did I like most about my best friend at school?
6 Have I ever performed on stage?
7 What did I want to be when growing up (more than one?)?
8 What did I play most when growing up?
9 If I met my 10 year old self what impression would I get?
REFLECTING OVER YOUR WHOLE LIFE
10 What are 3 places that I have been to and would love to visit again?
11 What key words would you use to describe them?
12 What does my closest friend like best about me?
13 What are/were my parents greatest personal strengths?
14 If I was given a forced vacation for three days tomorrow what would I do?
15 What is a key skill that I have that most people don’t know?
16 What gives me greatest pleasure in life?
17 If I order a meal in a cafe, what will it be?
18 What is irritates me  more than anything?
19 What would  my best friend say are the four most memorable things about me when describing me to a stranger?
20 If my sixteen year old self met me now, what advice would they give me?
21 What is one thing that I wish I was better at?

Do it with friends

If you have friends or a partner you have known a long time and whom you love and trust, the questions can be a great round-table game of mutual discovery. Maybe you could adapt to use in the workplace too. Have fun and please contact me to share the experience!

If this or other exercises have provoked some questions. To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your ideas.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make to these posts. See you next week!

If you are here for the first time and wonder what its all about, you can find out here. You can follow the exercises of being a blob, meeting your future self in a dream, considered your role models , understanding patterns in our thinking, considered your language and questioned your  values. What?!!

 

TOPHAT COACHING

 

 

 

 

Knowing Me – Week 6 Values

Get to know yourself a little be better every week! If you are here for the first time and wonder what its all about, you can find out here. You can follow the exercises of being a blob, meeting your future self in a dream, considered your role models,  meta programmes! This week we are talking values. Its the real deal. 

Week 6 – Your values are what matters most

What are values?

This Week we are thinking about Values. These  are concepts that can guide our behaviour. Words like trust, honesty, or fun or others like caution, patience or seriousness all describe values and things that might matter more or less to different people.

In the British comic gangster movie Snatch, a trail of dead bodies litters the screen. For Vinny – the hardened gangster –  killing the dog that’s swallowed the diamond they need is a step too far! In other words, his values won’t allow it.

Things get tricky when we try to interpret these words. No assumptions can be made about what people mean when they use them. So, even if we both agree that fun is good, your idea of fun might be very different from mine.  And yet, even with this ambiguity, exploring our values is very useful in getting to know ourselves better.

Values are at the heart of many a misunderstandings, conflict, anger and hurt. They are also central to building relationships, the basis for reconciliation and understanding. 

So what are yours?

This 5 step exercise is a start to exploring our values and reflecting what it might mean in the workplace or at home.  BEWARE! Most of us lie to ourselves when doing this exercise! We get caught up with what we think we should feel rather than what we do. Try to avoid this – and enjoy noticing it when you do!

STEP ONE

The list in the table below contains a jumble of many words commonly used to describe values.  As you run down or across the list, choose and write down every one that is truly important as a value to you. Do not overthink your selections and spend long on it. You may think they are all important but this exercise is to pull out your 20 or so top list.

As you read through the list, simply write down the words that feel like a core value to you personally. If you think of a value you possess that is not on the list, be sure to write it down as well. You may have quite a long list!

BenevolencePowerAbundanceEthics; CommitmentEnthusiasmCalmness
PassionIndependenceGenerosityJoyIndividuality; Preparedness; Dedication
Punctuality; ConsistencySelf-ControlZealCaringVersatility; Trustworthiness MindfulnessServiceQualityUniquenessSecurityFriendshipsInclusiveness
Responsiveness; Appreciation; Intuition; Achievement; Cooperation; Fun; Empathy; Inspiration; Autonomy; Resourcefulness;  Credibility; Safety; Individuality; Proactive; Carefulness; Thoughtfulness; Professionalism; Teamwork Reliability; Daring; Fairness; Security; Well-Being; Curiosity; Understanding Dependability; Perfection; Challenge; Stability; Expressiveness; Contribution; Charity; Open-Mindedness; Popularity; Family; Creativity; Happiness; Development; Kindness; Cheerfulness; Balance; Compassion; Traditionalism;Grace; Peace; Warmth; Stability; Playfulness; Love; Freedom;  Knowledge; Honesty; Attractiveness; Resilience; Spirituality Encouragement; Success; Optimism; Diversity; Advancement; Wisdom
Advocacy; Performance; Adventure; Boldness; Leadership; Cleverness; Learning Recognition; Innovation; Risk-taking; Healthy; Usefulness; Acceptance; Responsibility; Decisiveness; Collaboration; Simplicity; Selflessness; Humility; Relationships; Recognition
Ambition; Excellence; Brilliance; Humor; Community; Growth; Intelligence; Loyalty
Flexibility; Originality; Thankfulness; Wealth

STEP TWO

Look at your list and group all similar values together  Group them in a way that makes sense to you, personally. Create a maximum of five groupings. If you have more than five groupings, you will need to make a further choice and drop those least important.

STEP THREE 

Underline the one word in the group that is for you the most important one. Keep this to one side

STEP FOUR

Now think about your experiences. Explore them to answer the following (you might need to close your eyes to remember!) making some notes as you do:

      1. When have you been angry?
      2. When have you been most satisfied? 
      3. What do you consider my best experience (when you performed at your peak)?
      4. What types of environments inspire your best work?
      5. What aspects of my personality are most admired by others?
      6. What, if I had my choice, would I never do again if I didn’t have to?
      7. What have been my key reasons for leaving a job?

STEP FIVE

Look at the five groups and underlined key words from STEP THREE.  Do you see any connection between what you have enjoyed, disliked, succeeded in etc and the values you have identified?  What might this reflection tell you about important aspects of your life, such as work, family, community or friendships? How might they affect the choices you make?

If this or other exercises have provoked some questions. To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your ideas.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make. See you next week!

TOPHAT COACHING

 

Knowing Me Week 5 – mind your language

Mind Your Language

Welcome Knowing Me Week 5!  Knowing your language preferences is a key part of knowing yourself. Have you ever listened and wondered why certain words mean more or less to you?

The language that you use and like can tell you a lot about how you perceive and react to your environment. This usage has been affected by our culture and our upbringing (see this fascinating BBC article to know more on this)

Our journey of self-discovery continues this week with an exercise to look at the words we like and might use to express our feelingsFind a quiet space with a pen and paper and join me.

If you are here for the first time and wonder what its all about, you can find out here. You can follow the exercises of being a blob, meeting your future self in a dream, considered your role models and now its time for meta programmes! What? Read on..
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
  1. Read the 21 sentences below and mark 7 that appeal most to you. Try to do this as swiftly and fluidly as possible so you tap into your learnt intuition. 
  2. Once you have marked them look to the table below and mark the table with your 7 preferences.
  3. You will then be able to see HOW MANY As, Bs, or Cs you have
No. Sentence
1 The tinkle of the wind chimes tells me that the breeze is still rustling outside.
2 All dressed up and ready to go out she was a vision of glowing confidence
3 The sounds soared throughout the room, while the rhythms echoed in their heads
4 The house seemed to sigh as she turned off the light and felt the crisp sheet rustle
5 As I ran, I could feel the breeze on my back. My feet pounded along the path.
6 On a cold night, I like to relax by a warm fire in comfortable room with a cup of smooth, warm cocoa
7 In the long distance I can hear the whistle of the train.
8 The panorama of the green countryside stretched out clearly below us in the bright sparkling sun
9 There were flashes in the night sky as they drove north on the clear road
10 After a lot of revision she felt she grasped the essentials of  her work and could get a grip on her responsibilities
11 She was bitterly disappointed by losing this opportunity and felt she had been punched in the stomach
12 The shadows danced on the wall as she went up the stairs with the candle
13 The crowd cheered with a thunderous applause as the artist entered
14 With constant practice he was able to put pressure on his fitness and gave a solid performance
15 The crowd of brightly coloured roses around her door always gave the house the appearance of a painting
16 I was very comfortable at work and felt I was on the same wavelength as others in my team
17 I want to create an atmosphere in which they feel free to think and feel and be anything they desire
18 The water in the meadow glistened in the autumn
19 I was alert to the change of his tone. The blood raced through my veins, and I felt prepared for a confrontation
20 It seems crystal clear that if we don’t take steps to save the environment the outlook may be uncertain
21 Their steps were pounding on the pavement as they made their way home as fast as possible

 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
B A B B C C B A A C C
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  
A B C A B C A C A B

Mainly As – indicates that you have a visual preference (seeing)

Mainly Bs – indicates and auditory preference (hearing)

Mainly Cs – indicates a kinaesthetic (or feeling) preference

 Questions to ask yourself:

  1. What does this exercise tell you about the language you use?
  2. What does this exercise tell you about how you listen to others?

DID YOU NOTICE ANYTHING IN MY INSTRUCTIONS THAT MIGHT TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT ME?…

When working with others and needing to build rapport sometimes this is increased to great effect by noticing their sensory preference.

Have fun on this exploration! Nothing is right or wrong, better or worse –  although we may feel it to be so. A key part of becoming self-aware is to think about how you respond in certain contexts. Consider others you work or live with, notice their language. Does it shed light on why you might find it easier to persuade some people more than others?

If this or other exercises have provoked some questions. To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your ideas.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make. See you next week!

TOPHAT COACHING

 

 

Knowing Me Week 4: Patterns in our thinking

Knowing Me Week 4: Patterns in our thinking

Welcome back to our Knowing Me zone where you can get to know yourself better in the privacy of your own home!  

This week, we will explore patterns in the way we think and behave and the words we typically use. Noticing them can help us understand our working or living relations with others. Once we know them, we have new choices. We can live with them or change them! Find a quiet space with a pen and paper and join me.

If you are here for the first time and wonder what its all about, you can find out here. You can follow the exercises of being a blob, meeting your future self in a dream, considered your role models and now its time for meta programmes! What? Read on..

 

So which is it? Half Full or Half Empty? 

Of course, it depends on you!

Researchers Bandler and Grinder identified patterns of thought. These describe the ways in we are instinctively pay attention or filter out information. They are usually in opposition, for instance the TOWARDS/AWAY FROM pattern.    The patterns are called Meta-Programmes. Meta means at a higher sub-conscious level and programmes because they can occur routinely. As you will see from the table below our typical behaviours, the words we use and our emotions reveal these patterns.

Although there are many such patterns, in this week’s exercise we will consider only four.  You can have fun exploring more by looking for Meta Programmes here.

So, are your seatbelts, fastened? Here we go…

First – Take a quick look at the table below. In it, you will see a column listing Patterns. In the two other columns are listed the behaviours and words that are typical of people with a preference for one or the other side of the pattern.   

Second – Choose a context (e.g Workplace, Home, Community). Write it down and think about yourself in that context. Take a long breath in as you create a mental picture of it noticing what you see, hear and feel in your interactions with people and activities there.

Third – Using the table below ask yourself two questions, making a note of your answer: 

    • Which of these describes your responses and the words you might use?
    • How might these habits affect your relationships in the context you have chosen?
Patterns MOTIVATED BY/ WORDS USED
TOWARDS/AWAY FROM

 

Towards

You like goals and achieving them

Words you typically use: get, attain, target, have

Away from

You solve or avoid problems

Words you typically use: avoid, get away from, prevent, solve

INTERNAL/EXTERNAL

 

Internal – You like to set own standards and decide for yourself

Words you typically use: I’m satisfied; only you can decide; I’ve nailed it

External – You want to use external standards

Words you typically use:  I need feedback; so and so thinks; others say; lets check

OPTIONS/PROCEDURES

 

Options – You enjoy possibilities to try a different way; make and break rules; you start new projects not always finishing them Procedures: You like to follow set ways; believes in a right way; finishes what you start; you stick to rules
SAMENESS/DIFFERENCE

 

Sameness – you look for mutual interest and links

Words you typically use:  basically the same; we have this in common

Difference – you emphasise change and newness;

Words you typically use: fresh approach; new concept; innovative

Fourth – do the exercise in a different context. Was your selection different? 

Thinking ahead. These are patterns that can change if you choose to recognise them, notice the behaviour and work to adjust it.  

Have fun on this exploration! Nothing is right or wrong, better or worse –  although we may feel it to be so. A key part of becoming self-aware is to think about how you respond in certain contexts. Consider others you work or live with, notice their language and behaviours. Does it shed light on why you might find some people difficult?

If this or other exercises have provoked some questions. To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your ideas.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make. See you next week!

TOPHAT COACHING

 

 

Knowing Me Week 3: My Role Models

Knowing Me Week 3: Role Models

Thanks for joining me again for 10 minutes as we continue using small pauses in our day to get to know ourselves better.  Today we are thinking about formative role models

Find a quiet space with a pen and paper and join me.

For 5 minutes or so, give yourself permission to stop what you’re doing and think.  Bring to your mind someone, who was not your primary carer and whom you trusted and loved being with when you were younger (perhaps this is a relative, a friend, a friend of your parents, etc)

Spend a moment remembering your time with that person, visualize your interactions. Listen again inside your head to your exchanges and think about how you felt when you were with that person.

What was it about that person?

Make two columns one titled DO and the other FEEL. Answer the following two questions, thinking as you do about their behaviours and attitudes:

What did they do that you liked so much?

How did you feel?

Now you have two lists. Re read them and make sure you have written the most important things.

What about you?

Once you have your lists ask yourself: 

  • Who are the people in my life who need to trust and rely on me in some way?
  • How much do I mirror the behaviours I have valued in my lists?

In studies on role models (see John Whitmore, Coaching for Performance) the same words are often repeated: 

DO?  The person: Listened to me; Believed in me; Challenged me; Trusted me; Respected me; Gave me time and attention; Treated me as an equal

Feel? Special; Value;  Confident; Safe/Cared for; Supported; Able; Fun/enthusiasm; Supported

The Way Forward

Compare your list with those from the research. Are yours similar? How well do you offer this to those who look to you for guidance and support? What is ONE THING you could do to be even better?

To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your needs.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make. See you next week!

Knowing Me! Week 2 Your Future Self


Knowing Me! Week Two: Your Future Self

Welcome to Knowing Me! This is your space for  private thought-provoking fun. This week I invite you to meet your future self. You will notice what you notice and choose your direction! 

Its Week 2 my friends and its all for free.  For more about this journey read the intro and check out Week One

Last week you were looking at blobs and wondering which one might be you. This time we have something that my clients have called more challenging, but fun.  

As we get started, please make yourself comfortable in a place where for 10 minutes or so you will not be interrupted. With your feet firmly on the floor and with a pen and paper nearby, let’s get started!

Visualising Your future self…

Read through these instructions to get yourself set up and to enable you to run the exercise quietly and thoughtfully. Note DONT WORRY if you don’t have strong visions, let your imagination work in whatever way you like. This is meant to be fun!  Remember to consider the final question.

As you can see, I have recorded the exercise because then you can spend the time thinking instead of checking what you are meant to do next.  

 

 

Switch off your phone if it might disturb you. Sit comfortably with your feet on the floor. Notice how the ground feels. Roll your shoulders deeply to feel relaxed and ready to explore. Take three or four nice long deep breaths and as you breath in imagine you are breathing in FRESH AIR & CLARITY. Lift the corners of your mouth. You might want to close your eyes.

NOW…Imagine you are walking down a road. It is a sunny, warm day. Look around you and notice what the place looks like and how it feels to be walking along. In a moment you are going to meet someone coming towards you. This person will be you in the future: your future self. Your future self is living their dream, achieving their best doing what they want. Watch them come towards you from a distance. Allow yourself to really look at them carefully. What do you notice?

Your future self reaches you and greets you. How do they greet you? How do they behave? What do you notice? Do you have a question for your future self? Ask it, and listen for the answer.

Thank this person and say goodbye. Thank them for coming to meet you. Breath deeply as you return to the present. Be aware of how you are sitting. Wriggle your toes and fingers. Open your eyes

Write down anything you wish to remember from the encounter. What did you see? What did you notice? What did you hear? What did you feel?

As we end, consider this question :- In what way has meeting your future self made you think about your present self?

Thanks for this exercise go to “Coaching For Performance”, Sir John Whitmore 2002 from which it was taken

If this or last weeks exercise has provoked some questions. To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your ideas.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make. See you next week!

 

 

Knowing Me! Week 1

Welcome to Knowing Me!  Week 1

As promised in the intro, in his Knowing Me Week 1, I am offering you some private, thought-provoking FREE fun.  

So my friends, get a pen and paper, follow your nose and let’s get started!…

Which blob are you?

First, look at the Blob Tree picture below and take a moment to think about the different characters and what they might represent for you. What do the positions in the tree say to you? What are the expressions of the blobs?

Now you’re in the mood, let’s think some more.

Consider where your life happens and reflect

Maybe you think about home, or the workplace, school or social gatherings.  Choose one of these and then ask: In that situation, which one of these blobs reminds me of me?

(Helpful hint: You might want to make notes as you answer these questions. If you find it hard to answer for yourself, trying thinking of a colleague or a friend first, before answering for yourself)

Now ask: Which blob would I most like to be? Is there a different one?

If it’s the same, what makes you think that? Make a note

If it’s a different one. What would you have to change to get there? 

Are you always the same blob in this situation? If not, what makes the difference?

Now consider different parts of your life, and ask the same questions again….and breath!

Reflect some more

So in this first week of self discovery you have thought about blobs in trees! What did you notice? Were you surprised? Was your mind open or closed? Did you make assumptions about the tree and the grass and the other blobs?

Credit for this exercise and thanks go the amazing: Pip Wilson and Ian Strong at Blob Tree (https://www.blobtree.com/)

Feel free to play this with friends, kids in school or colleagues in teams. Printing and numbering the blobs can help. It can be printed and coloured in. Please note, he may look interested but your cat will only pretend to be joining in.

To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your needs.

Please let me know how you got on or improvements you would make. See you next week!

 

Knowing Me, I mean You! – 9 weeks of discovery

Knowing Me, I mean You!

How well would you say you know yourself? Are you part of the 90% who think they do or the 10% who actually do (see this HBR article).

Knowing yourself is at the heart of emotional intelligence and paves the road to success.

Here are 9 weekly games for you to try as you investigate the answer to the question of who you are.  They are fun. They can be shared or kept private.

To find out more about coaching CONTACT ME and we can discuss your needs.

Each week I will add another:

Week One – Which Blob are You

Week Two– Meet Your Future Self 

Week Three  – Your Role Models

Week Four; – Patterns in you thinking 

Week Five; Your Language

Week Six; Your Values

Week 7;  Your Past Self

Week 8; Be Do Have

Week 9– Dream for some magic

Some will jog your memory of your past, others will prompt you to imagine the future. I hope some of them make you laugh as well as think afresh about who you are and what you want. 

TopHat coaching clients are with me on a road of self discovery as they unlock their best. We turn dreams into plans and to confront barriers that affect success.  Self-exploration and reflection is key to deciding on the sustained changes, you want to make.

Where I have knowingly borrowed and adapted I will provide links and references for you to follow. If I missed any, please let me know so I can put it right.